A Property Specification Pattern Catalog for Real-Time System Verification with UPPAAL


Thomas Vogel, Marc Carwehl, Genaína Nunes Rodrigues, and Lars Grunske. “A Property Specification Pattern Catalog for Real-Time System Verification with UPPAAL”. In: Information and Software Technology 154 (2023), p. 107100. DOI: 10.1016/j.infsof.2022.107100. (Available online 01 Nov 2022).


Context: The goal of specification pattern catalogs for real-time requirements is to mask the complexity of specifying such requirements in a timed temporal logic for verification. For this purpose, they provide frontends to express and translate pattern-based natural language requirements to formulae in a suitable logic. However, the widely used real-time model checking tool UPPAAL only supports a restricted subset of those formulae that focus only on basic and non-nested reachability, safety, and liveness properties. This restriction renders many specification patterns inapplicable. As a workaround, timed observer automata need to be constructed manually to express sophisticated requirements envisioned by these patterns. Objective: In this work, we fill these gaps by providing a comprehensive specification pattern catalog for UPPAAL. The catalog supports qualitative and real-time requirements and covers all corresponding patterns of existing catalogs. Method: The catalog we propose is integrated with UPPAAL. It supports the specification of qualitative and real-time requirements using patterns and provides an automated generator that translates these requirements to observer automata and TCTL formulae. The resulting artifacts are used for verifying systems modeled as timed automata in UPPAAL. Thus, our catalog enables an automated end-to-end verification process for UPPAAL based on property specification patterns and observer automata. Results: We evaluate our catalog on three UPPAAL system models reported in the literature and mostly applied in an industrial setting. As a result, not only the reproducibility of the related UPPAAL models was possible, but also the validation of an automated, seamless, and accurate pattern- and observer-based verification process. Conclusion: The proposed property specification pattern catalog for UPPAAL enables practitioners to specify qualitative and real-time requirements in a pattern-based way—without directly using a temporal logic—and to verify them in UPPAAL while supporting a comprehensive set of patterns.


  author = {Vogel, Thomas and Carwehl, Marc and Rodrigues, Genaína Nunes and Grunske, Lars},
  title = {A Property Specification Pattern Catalog for Real-Time System Verification with UPPAAL},
  journal = {Information and Software Technology},
  volume = {154},
  year = {2023},
  pages = {107100},
  doi = {10.1016/j.infsof.2022.107100},
  publisher = {Elsevier}